Malaysia

Extensive List of Languages of Malaysia: Spoken and Extinct Languages

:: List of Languages ::

Languages of Malaysia – PENINSULAR

Malaysia (Peninsular). 26,640,000 (2004). 12,123,300 speakers of Austronesian languages, 3,399,000 speakers of Chinese languages, 44,610 speakers of Austro-Asiatic languages (Matisoff 1991), 1,090,000 speakers of Dravidian languages. Immigrant languages: Burmese, Chinese Sign Language, Eastern Panjabi (56,400), Malayalam (35,800), Sylheti, Telugu (39,000), Western Cham. Information mainly from A. Baxter 1988; B. Comrie 1987; R. Dentan 1968; I. Hancock 1969; J. Holm 1989; F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; S. Lim 1981; W. G. Shellabear 1913. Blind population: 22,300. The number of individual languages listed for Malaysia (Peninsular) is 41. Of those, all are living languages.

Batek
[btq] 1,000 (2006), decreasing. North Pahang, Kelantan, Trengganu. Alternate names: Bateg, Bateq, Batok, Kleb, Nong, Tomo. Dialects: Batek Teq (Teq), Batek De’ (Deq), Batek Iga, Batek Nong (Nong). Deq and Nong dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern

Cheq Wong
[cwg] 660 (2003 COAC), increasing. Just south of Semai, Pahang. Alternate names: Beri, Che Wong, Chewong, Che’wong, Chuba, Siwang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Chewong

Chinese, Hakka
[hak] 1,090,000 in Malaysia (2000). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] 252,000 in Malaysia (2004). Dialects: Foochow (Fuzhou). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 2,660,000 in Malaysia (2000). 497,280 Teochew, 141,045 Hainanese, 2,020,868 Hokkien (2000). Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Fukienese (Amoy, Fujianese, Hokkien), Hainanese, Chaochow (Teochow, Teochew). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] 24,700 in Malaysia (2000). Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. Dialects: Xinghua (Hsinghua, Hinghua

Chinese, Yue
[yue] 1,070,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Alternate names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Dialects: Cantonese, Toishanese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Duano
[dup] 500 in Malaysia (2007 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,067. South coast, Pontian Kecil area, northwest; west coast of Johor, Muar, Batu Pahat, and Pontian districts, Lenga, Semerah, Minyak Beku, Senggarang, Rengit, Kuala Benut, Pontian Besar, and Sungai Layau settlements. Alternate names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Kuala, Orang Laut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

English
[eng] 380,000 in Malaysia (Crystal 2005), increasing. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

Jah Hut
[jah] 5,100 (2003 COAC), increasing. Ethnic population: 2,442 (2000 D. Bradley). Just south of main body of Semai [sea], Kuala Krau, Pahang [zlm]. Alternate names: Jah Het. Dialects: Kerdau, Krau, Ketiar Krau (Tengganu), Kuala Tembeling, Pulau Guai, Ulu Ceres (Cheres), Ulu Tembeling. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Jah Hut

Jakun
[jak] Ethnic population: 27,448. East coast and inland, Pairang River, Pekan to Sri Gading, east to Benut, northwest to middle Muat River area. Alternate names: Djakun, Jakoon, Jaku’d, Jakud’n, Orang Hulu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Jehai
[jhi] 1,000 (2006), increasing. Ethnic population: 1,843 (2003). Northeast Perak and west Kelantan. Alternate names: Jahai, Pangan. Dialects: Jehai, Batek Teh. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern

Kensiu
[kns] Population total all countries: 300. Ethnic population: 232 (2003). Northeast Kedah, near Thai border. Overlaps into south Yala Province, Thailand. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Mendi, Monik, Moniq, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar. Dialects: Ijoh (Ijok), Jarum, Jeher (Sakai Tanjong of Temongoh), Kedah (Quedah), Plus, Ulu Selama, Kensiu Batu, Kensiu Siong, Kentaq Nakil. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western

Kintaq
[knq] 160 in Malaysia (2003 COAC), decreasing. Kedah-Perak border area, Thai border. Overlaps into South Yala Province, Thailand. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Bong, Kenta, Kintak, Kintaq Bong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western

Lanoh
[lnh] 220 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 224 (2000 D. Bradley). North central Perak. Alternate names: Jengjeng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic

Mah Meri
[mhe] 2,990 (2003 COAC), increasing. Selangor coast, Malacca. Alternate names: Besisi, Cellate. Dialects: Kuala Langot Besisi, Malakka Besisi, Ulu Langat Orang Bukit, Selangor Sakai, Betise’ (Betisek), Sisi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

Malaccan Creole Malay
[ccm] Ethnic population: 300. Malacca Straits. Alternate names: Chitties Creole Malay. Dialects: May be historically related to Sri Lankan Creole Malay [sci]. Classification: Creole, Malay based

Malaccan Creole Portuguese
[mcm] 1,000. Ethnic population: 12,640. Trankera and Hilir, Melaka, Straits of Malacca. Related varieties in parts of Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. Alternate names: Bahasa Geragau, Bahasa Serani, Luso-Malay, Malaccan, Malaqueiro, Malaquenho, Malaquense, Malaquês, Malayo-Portuguese, Malaysian Creole Portuguese, Papia Kristang, Português de Malaca, Portuguese Patois, Serani. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based

Malay
[msa] A macrolanguage. Population total all countries: 39,144,949.

Malay
[zlm] 8,880,000 in Malaysia. 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 505,800 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. Population total all countries: 10,296,000. Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, parts of Sarawak. Also in Canada, Indonesia (Sumatra), Myanmar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, United States. Alternate names: Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu. Dialects: Coastal Terengganu, Inland Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Southeast Island, Orang Hulu, Orang Kuala, Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor, Sarawak (Sarawak Malay), Tamiang, Deli, Riau Mainland, Lubu, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands, coastal Jambi, Belitung, Northwestern Kalimantan, Upstream Western Kalimantan, Southwestern Coastal Kalimantan. Kedah

Malay [meo], Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], Jakun [jak], Duano [dup], Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Temuan [tmw], Sabah Malay [msi], and Burnei [kxd], are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay [zlm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Malay, Baba
[mbf] Ethnic population: 5,000. Peninsular Malaysia, Melaka Tengah, Malacca Straits. Alternate names: Chinese Malay, Straits Malay. Classification: Creole, Malay based

Malay, Kedah
[meo] 2,600,000 in Malaysia (2004). Kedah, Penang, Perlis, and (north) Perak states. Also in Thailand. Alternate names: Satun Malay. Dialects: Distinct from Pattani Malay [mfa], Standard Malay [zsm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Malay, Standard
[zsm] Some L1 speakers, but pervasive diglossia with local Malay varieties makes it difficult to estimate L1 population. Widespread Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. Also in Brunei, Singapore. Alternate names: Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku. Dialects: Over 80% cognate with Indonesian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Malaysian Sign Language
[xml] 24,000. Alternate names: Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia. Dialects: Variations are found in every state, but are mutually intelligible with the possible exception of some places in Terengganu state. The status of the sign language in Terengganu is not yet clear. Classification: Deaf sign language

Minriq
[mnq] 160 (2003 COAC). Southeast Kelantan. Alternate names: Mendriq, Menraq, Menrik, Menriq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern

Mintil
[mzt] 40 (1975 SIL). Tamun River, Pahang. Alternate names: Mitil. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern Nearly extinct.

Negeri Sembilan Malay
[zmi] Ethnic population: 507,500 (2004). Southeast of Kuala Lumpur, Ulu Muar District. Alternate names: Malaysian Minangkabau, Ulu Muar Malay. Dialects: Related to Minangkabau [min] in Sumatra, Indonesia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Orang Kanaq
[orn] Ethnic population: 83 (2003 census). Southeast and northeast of Mawai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Orang Seletar
[ors] Population total all countries: 880. Ethnic population: 1,407 (2003 census). Southeast coast around Kukuo, Jahore Bahru, east and north, and the north coast of Singapore. Also in Singapore. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Penang Sign Language
[psg] 1,000, decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. Penang. Classification: Deaf sign language

Sabüm
[sbo] North central Perak. Dialects: Most similar to Lanoh [lnh], Semnam [ssm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic

Selangor Sign Language
[kgi] 500, decreasing. Peninsular Malaysia, Selangor, elsewhere. Alternate names: KLSL, Kuala Lumpur Sign Language. Classification: Deaf sign language

Semai
[sea] 43,900 (2003). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000 (2000). Northwest Pahang and south Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, central mountain area. Alternate names: “Central Sakai” , Seng’oi, Sengoi, Senoi. Dialects: Jelai, Perak I, Perak II, Cameron, Telom, Bidor, Betau, Lipis, Bil, Ulu Kampar (Kampar), Gopeng, Tanjung Malim, Parit, Tapah (Jalan Pahang). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic

Semaq Beri
[szc] Ethnic population: 3,545 (2003 COAC). Pahang, Trengganu, Kelantan. Alternate names: Semaq Bri, Semoq Beri. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

Semelai
[sza] Ethnic population: 6,418 (2003 COAC). Between Segamat (Johore) and Pahang rivers. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

Semnam
[ssm] 670 (2000). North central Perak. Dialects: Similar to Lanoh [lnh], Sabüm [sbo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic

Tamil
[tam] Ethnic population: 1,396,480 (2000). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil

Temiar
[tea] Ethnic population: 25,725 (2003 COAC). Perak and Kelantan; Pahang. Alternate names: Northern Sakai, Pie, Seroq, Temer. Dialects: Grik, Kenderong, Kenering, Po-Klo (Sakai Bukit of Temongoh), Sakai of Plus Korbu, Sungai Piah, Tanjong Rambutan, Tembe’ (Tembi), Ulu Kinta (Kinta Sakai), Lanoh Kobak. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic

Temoq
[tmo] Southeast Pahang, Jeram River. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian

Temuan
[tmw] Ethnic population: 22,162 (2003 COAC). Southern extension of the main range, south half of the peninsula, Selangor, Pahang, Johore, Negri Sembilan, Kuala Langat, scattered settlements. Alternate names: Benua, Niap. Dialects: Beduanda (Biduanda), Belanda (Belana, Blanda, Landa, Belanas, Belandas), Berembun (Birmun), Mantra (Mentera, Mintra), Temuan, Udai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Tonga
[tnz] Northwest tip north of Kaki. Alternate names: Mos Tean-ean. Dialects: Satun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga

LANGUAGES OF MALAYSIA (SABAH)
Malaysia (Sabah). 2,862,300 (2006 Encyclopedia of Malaysia). 704,800 non-Malaysians. Literacy rate: 80%. Information mainly from M. Boutin 1986; M. and A. Boutin 1985; J. King and J. King 1984; P. Kroeger 1985, 1986; C. Miller 1981–1982, 1987; A. Pallesen 1985; C. Sather 1997; J. Walton and D. Moody 1984. The number of individual languages listed for Malaysia (Sabah) is 52. Of those, all are living languages.

Abai Sungai
[abf] 500 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,000. Lower reaches of Kinabatangan River. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic

Bajau, West Coast
[bdr] 55,000 (2000). West coast of Sabah, Kuala Penyu to Kudat, north, some east areas. Alternate names: Land Bajaw, West Coast Bajao. Dialects: Kota Belud, Kawang, Putatan, Papar, Banggi, Sandakan Bajau, Pitas Bajau. Diversified in structure more than other Borneo languages. Related to but distinct from East Coast Bajau languages of Malaysia and the Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau [bdl] (1977 K. Pallesen). Less than 65% intelligibility with Southern Sama [ssb]. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than 1 language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw

Balangingi
[sse] 4,000 in Malaysia (2000). East coast of Sabah. Alternate names: Baangingi’, Balagnini, Balangingi Bajau, Balanian, Balanini, Balignini, Banadan, Binadan, Northern Sinama, Sama. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama

Banjar
[bjn] 2,300 in Malaysia (2000 SIL). Tawau. Alternate names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjarese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Bisaya, Sabah
[bsy] 15,800 (2000). North Brunei Bay coast area, mainly west Beaufort along Padas River, south of Weston; south Kuala Penyu District to coast. Alternate names: Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisayah, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai. Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Tatana [txx]. Lexical similarity: with dialects of Brunei Bisaya [bsb]: 58% with Sarawak dialect and 57%–59% with Brunei dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya

Bonggi
[bdg] 1,400 (1990 UBS). Kudat District, Banggi Island. 15 villages. Alternate names: Banggi, Bangay, Banggi Dusun. Dialects: Most similar to Molbog of the Philippines. Lexical similarity: with dialects of Brunei Bisaya [bsb]: 58% with Sarawak dialect and 57%–59% with Brunei dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya

Bookan
[bnb] 2,760 (2000). 300 or more Tengara. Keningau and Kinabatangan districts, Sook and Kinabatangan rivers headwaters area. Alternate names: Baukan, Baukan Murut. Dialects: Baukan (Baokan, Bokan, Bookan, Boken, Bokun, Bukun, Bokon, Ulun-No-Bokon, Ulun-No-Bokan, Pingas), Kokoroton Murut, Tengara (Tungara, Tingara, Tenggaraq, Tangara’, Tanggaraq, Kinabatangan Murut). Close to Keningau Murut [kxi], Timugon [tih], Tagal [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Northern

Brunei
[kxd] 51,000 in Malaysia (2000). Sarawak, 4th, 5th divisions, Upper Balait and Tutau rivers, north coast; Sabah in Beaufort, Kuala Penyu, Labuan, Labuk-Sugut, Papar, Sipitang, Sandakan, Tenom districts. Alternate names: Brunei-Kadaian, Orang Bukit. Dialects: Brunei, Kadaian (Kadayan, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedyan, Kedayan, Kedien, Kerayan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Bugis
[bug] Alternate names: Buginese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis

Dumpas
[dmv] 1,080 (2000). Labuk-Sugut District, Perancangan village. Alternate names: Doompas. Dialects: May be Paitanic. Comprehension of Tombonuo [txa] 87%, Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb] 57%, Coastal Kadazan [kzj] 44%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Unclassified

Dusun, Central
[dtp] 141,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 Ranau (1989 UBS), 70,000 Bundu (1990 UBS), 500 (?) Kuala Monsok Dusun (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Labuk-Sugut District, Perancangan village. Alternate names: Central Kadazan, Dusan, Dusum, Dusun, Dusur, Kadasan, Kadayan, Kedayan. Dialects: Dusun Sinulihan (Sinulihan), Kadazan-Tagaro (Tagaro), Kiundu, Pahu’, Sokid, Tindal, Menggatal (Kiulu, Telipok), Ranau, Bundu (Taginambur), Beaufort, Luba, Kuala Monsok Dusun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Dusun, Sugut
[kzs] 12,200 (2000). Labuk-Sugut District, Sugut River headwaters. Alternate names: Dusun, Kadayan, Sugut, Sugut Kadazan, Tanggal, Tilau-Ilau. Dialects: Tinagas, Talantang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Dusun, Tambunan
[kzt] 15,600 (2000), decreasing. Tambunan District, parts of Keningau. Alternate names: Tambunan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Dusun, Tempasuk
[tdu] 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Tempasuk village area, Kota Belud. Alternate names: Kedamaian Dusun, Tampasok, Tampassuk, Tampasuk, Tempasok, Tindal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Gana
[gnq] 1,000 (2000). Minusut and Kuangoh, Keningau District along Baiaya River, a tributary of Pegalan River, north of Keningau town. Alternate names: Gana’, Ganaq, Keningau Dusun, Minansut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Ida’an
[dbj] 5,000 (2000). Population includes 1,500 Begak. East coast of Sabah, Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts. Alternate names: Bulud Upi, Eraans, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan. Dialects: Begak (Begahak, Bagahak), Subpan (Supan, Sungai), Ida’an. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Ida’an

Iranun
[ill] Lahad Datu and Kota Belud districts, 17 villages; also reportedly in Kudat and Marudu. Alternate names: “Ilanun” , Illanun, Illanoan, Illanoon, Iranon Maranao, Iranum, Lanoon, Ylanos, Lanun, Illanos. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon

Javanese
[jav] 300,000 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Alternate names: Jawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese

Kadazan, Coastal
[kzj] 60,000 (1986 SIL). West coast of Sabah, Penampang, and Papar districts. Alternate names: Kadazan Tangaa’, Membakut Kadazan, Papar Kadazan, Penampang Kadazan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Kadazan, Klias River
[kqt] 1,000 (1984 SIL). Klias River area, Beaufort District. Dialects: Low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan [kzj]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tatana [txx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan
[dtb] 20,600 (2000 SIL). 14,000 to 16,000 Labuk (1987 SIL), 7,000 to 8,000 Sungai (1982 SIL). Northeast Sabah, Sandakan, Labuk-Sugut, and Kinabatangan districts. Alternate names: Eastern Kadazan, Labuk Kadazan, Sogilitan, Tindakon, Tompulung. Dialects: Mangkaak (Mangkahak, Mangkok, Mangkak), Sukang, Labuk, Lamag Sungai (Sungei). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern

Kalabakan
[kve] 2,230 (2000 WCD). Tawau District along Kalabakan River. Alternate names: Kalabakan Murut, Tawau Murut, Tidung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

Keningau Murut
[kxi] 7,000 (2000), decreasing. 1,000 to 1,200 Dusun Murut (1985 SIL). Keningau District, area north of Keningau town Pegalan River. Alternate names: Central Murut. Dialects: Nabay (Nabai, Nebee, Dabay, Dabai, Rabay, Rabai), Ambual, Dusun Murut. Similar to Bookan [bnb], Timugon tih]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Kimaragang
[kqr] 25,000 (2007), decreasing. Kota Marudu and Pitas districts. Alternate names: Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang. Dialects: Tandek (Garo), Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Kinabatangan, Upper
[dmg] 5,000 (2000). 500 Dusun Segama and 800 to 900 Sinabu’ (1985 SIL). Primarily upper reaches of Kinabatangan River; also Lahad Datu and Sandakan districts, Maligatan, Minusu, and Tongud. Alternate names: Sungai Milian. Dialects: Kalabuan (Kolobuan), Makiang, Dusun Segama (Saga-i, Soghai, Segai), Sinabu’ (Sinabu). Dialects have approximately 87% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: over 90% among all dialects, except Makiang and Sinabu’ with 80%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan

Kota Marudu Talantang
[grm] 1,800 (2000). Kota Marudu District, Talantang 1 and Talantang 2. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Kota Marudu Tinagas
[ktr] 1,250 (1985 SIL). South Kota Marudu and Parong, a migrant village in north Kota Marudu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Kuijau
[dkr] 7,910 (2000). Keningau District, area west and north of Keningau town. Alternate names: Hill Dusun, Kijau, Koijoe, Kuiyow, Kujau, Kuliow, Kuriyo, Kwijau, Menindal, Menindaq, Minansut, Tidung, Tindal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Lobu, Lanas
[ruu] 2,800 (1986 SIL). 2,000 in Lobu, 800 in Rumanau. Lobu in Keningau District near Lanas, Rumanau in Masaum, Mangkawagu, Minusu, Kinabatangan District. Dialects: Lobu, Rumanau (Rumanau Alab, Romanau, Roomarrows). May be a dialect of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan

Lobu, Tampias
[low] 1,800 (1985 SIL). Tampias area, Ranau. 3 villages. Dialects: High intelligibility of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Lanas Lobu [ruu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan

Lotud
[dtr] 5,000 (1985 SIL), decreasing. Tuaran District, just north of Kota Kinabalu, Tuaran town area. Alternate names: Dusun Lotud, Suang Lotud. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Malay
[msa] A macrolanguage. Population total all countries: 39,144,949.

Malay, Cocos Islands
[coa] 4,000 in Malaysia (2000), decreasing. Population total all countries: 5,000. Tawau and Lahad Datu; 1 village northwest of Beluran. Also in Australia. Alternate names: Suang Lotud, Dusun Lotud AGE All ages DOM Home, market, village meetings. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade

Malay, Sabah
[msi] Alternate names: Bazaar Malay, Pasar Malay. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay

Mapun
[sjm] 1,870 in Malaysia (1999). East coast of Sabah, Sandakan; west coast of Sabah, Banggi, Marudu, Kudat, Kota Kinabalu. Alternate names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang Cagayan, Sama Mapun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw

Minokok
[mqq] 1,200 (2007). Kinabatangan River headwaters. Dialects: Most similar to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb] and Kimaragang [kqr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central

Molbog
[pwm] 6,680 in Malaysia (1990 Census). Banggi Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic

Paluan
[plz] 5,500 (2000). 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan. Tenom, Keningau, and Pensiangan districts, Padas River tributaries; Dalit, Keramatoi, Nabawan, Pamentarian, Mesopo rivers; lower Sook River valley; Talankai and Sapulut rivers’ headwaters. Dialects: Paluan (Peluan), Dalit Murut, Sook Murut, Takapan, Makaheeliga (Makialiga), Pandewan (Pandewan Murut). Most similar to Tagal Murut [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Papar
[dpp] 1,000 (2000). Kuala Penyu District. Alternate names: Bajau Bukit. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Rungus
[drg] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Kudat, Pitas, Labuk-Sugut districts. Alternate names: Dusun Dayak, Melobong Rungus, Memagun, Memogun, Momogun, Roongas, Rungus Dusun. Dialects: Gandahon, Gonsomon, Nuluw, Pilapazan (Rungus Tanga, Central Rungus). Gonsomon and Nuluw most distinctive dialects. Gandahon is less distinct. Lexical similarity within 86%–96% range. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Sama, Southern
[ssb] 119,000 in Malaysia (2000). Virtually no monolinguals. 6,000 Sikubung, 15,000 Bajau Laut, 13,000, Bajau Ubian, 700 Bajau Banaran, 9,000 Sibutu, 14,500 Bajau Simunul, 61,000 Bajau Kubang (or Bajau Semporna). East, north, and west coasts; Banggi, Kota Belud, Gaya Island, Kuala Penyu. Alternate names: Sama Sibutu’, Southern Bajau. Dialects: Bajau Banaran, Bajau Darat, Bajau Laut (Mandelaut, Pala’au, Sama Laut, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’au, Sea Bajau, Sea Gypsies), Bajau Semporna (Bajau Asli, Kubang, Sama Kubang), Laminusa (Laminusa Sinama), Sibutu (Sibutuq, Sama Sibutu, Samah-Samah, Samah Lumbuh), Simunul (Sama Simunul), Sikubung (Kubung, Sama Kubung), Sama (A’a Sama, Sama’, Samah, Samal, Samar), Ubian (Obian, Sama Ubian, Tau Ubian). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama

Selungai Murut
[slg] 600 in Malaysia (2000). Pensiangan District, Sapulut River confluence with Pensiangan River south to Indonesia border. 1 village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Sembakung Murut
[sbr] 2,000 in Malaysia (2000). Along Sembakung River in northern Kalimantan, Indonesia, from the mouth upstream into Sabah. Alternate names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

Serudung Murut
[srk] 350 (2000). Tawau District along Serudung River; Tawau town area, 1 village. Alternate names: Serudong, Tawau Murut, Tidung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

Tagal Murut
[mvv] 13,000 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 15,000. Widespread southwest Sabah, Pensiangan, Keningau, Tenom, Sipitang districts, south into Kalimantan, Indonesia. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Dialects: Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (Taggal, Tagul, Tagol, North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut), Sumambu (Semembu, Semambu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Pentjangan, Lagunan Murut), Salalir (Sadalir, Sedálir, Saralir), Alumbis (Lumbis, Loembis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Mauligan, Meligan, Bol Murut, Bole Murut). Most similar to Paluan [plz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Tatana
[txx] 5,500 (1982 SIL). Kuala Penyu District. Alternate names: Tatana’, Tatanaq. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya

Tausug
[tsg] 150,000 in Malaysia (2000). Sempurna, Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Labuk-Sugut, Kudat districts. Alternate names: Joloano, Joloano Sulu, Moro, Sooloo, Sulu, Suluk, Taosug, Tausog, Taw Sug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug

Tidong
[tid] 20,000 in Malaysia (2000). Kota Marudu and Kota Belud districts, Kota Kinabalu towns, others. Alternate names: Camucones, Nonukan, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong. Dialects: Tarakan (Terakan), Sesayap (Sesajap). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong

Timugon Murut
[tih] 7,000 (2000). 1,200 to 1,700 in Beaufort Murut (1982 SIL). Tenom District, Padas River from Melalap to Batu; Beaufort District, Bukau and lower Padas rivers. Alternate names: Temogun, Tenom Murut, Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Timugon, Tumugun. Dialects: Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Tobilung
[tgb] 8,850 (2007). Kota Marudu and Kota Belud districts; Kota Kinabalu towns, others. Alternate names: Tabilong, Tobilang, Tebilung. Dialects: Low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan [kzk]; moderate intelligibility with Kimaragang [kqr] and Rungus [drg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun

Tombonuo
[txa] 10,000 (2000). 3,000 Lingkabau. Labuk-Sugut, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Alternate names: Lobu, Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Tambanua, Tambanuo, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tembenua, Tombonuwo, Tombonuva, Tumbunwha, Tunbumohas. Dialects: Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic

Wolio
[wlo] Alternate names: Buton, Butonese, Butung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru

Yakan
[yka] 1,000 in Malaysia (2000). Alternate names: Yacan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic

Languages of Malaysia – SARAWAK

Malaysia (Sarawak). 2,185,500 (2004). Information mainly from R. Blust 1974; A. Hudson 1978; C. Rensch 2006; P. Sercombe 1997; A. Soriente 2003, 2005; E. Uhlenbeck 1958. The number of individual languages listed for Malaysia (Sarawak) is 46. Of those, 44 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.

Bakati’, Rara
[lra] 11,300 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 23,300. 1st Division, Lundu, Pasir River, 2 small villages. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Luru. Dialects: Most closely related to other Bakati’ languages spoken in Kalimantan. Lexical similarity: 46%–50% with Bidayuh languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’

Balau
[blg] 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southwest Sarawak, southeast of Simunjan. Alternate names: Bala’u. Dialects: May be a dialect of Iban [iba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic

Belait
[beg] Alternate names: Lemeting, Meting. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A

Berawan, Central
[zbc] 710 (2007). Sarawak. Dialects: Batu Belah Berawan, Long Teru Berawan. Similar to East Berawan [zbe], West Berawan [zbw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan

Berawan, East
[zbe] 1,100 (2007). Sarawak. Alternate names: Long Jegan Berawan. Dialects: Similar to Central Berawan [zbc], West Berawan [zbw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan

Berawan, West
[zbw] 720 (2007). Sarawak. Alternate names: Berawan, Long Terawan. Dialects: Similar to Central Berawan [zbc], East Berawan zbe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan

Bidayuh, Bau
[sne] 29,200 (2000 census). Bau, 1st Division, Sadong, Samarahan, and Lundu rivers. About 50 villages. Alternate names: Bau-Jagoi, Jagoi, Jaggoi, Sarawak Dayak. Dialects: Grogo (Grogoh), Stenggang Jagoi, Krokong, Gumbang, Serambau (Serambu, Serambo), Empawa, Assem, Singai (Singgai, Singgi, Singgie, Singhi, Bisingai), Suti, Tengoh, Dongay, Taup (Tahup). Gumbang may be more closely related to Tringgus-Sembaan [trx]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Bukar Sadung [sdo], 53% between Bukar Sadung and Singai dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Western

Bidayuh, Biatah
[bth] 63,900 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 72,380. Sarawak, 1st Division, Kuching District. 10 villages. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Bikuab, Kuap, Quop, Sentah. Dialects: Siburan, Stang (Sitaang, Bisitaang), Tibia. Cannot understand Bukar-Sadung Bidayuh [sdo] Salako [ knx], or other Bidayuh varieties from Indonesia. Lexical similarity: 71% with Singa [sne]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central

Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong
[sdo] 49,100 in Malaysia (2000 census). Sarawak, Serian 1st Division. 30 or more villages. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sadung, Serian, Tebakang. Dialects: Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayuh, Bidayah, Bideyu), Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayuh, Mentuh Tapuh. Lexical similarity: 57% with Malay [zsm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern

Bidayuh, Tringgus-Sembaan
[trx] 850 in Malaysia (2007 Z. Akter). Southwest of Kuching, south of the Bau Bidayuh [sne], on Kalimantan border. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Tringus. Dialects: Tringgus, Mbaan (Sembaan, Bimbaan). Each dialect has a few villages. More similar to Biatah Bidayuh [bth] than to Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Gumbang [sne] may be a Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx] dialect rather than a Bau Bidayuh [sne] dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Sembaan

Bintulu
[bny] 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northeast coast, Sibuti area, west of Niah, around Bintulu, and 2 enclaves west. Dialects: Could also be classified as a Baram-Tinjar subgroup or as an isolate within the Rejang-Baram subgroup. Blust (1974) classifies as isolate with North Sarawakan. Not similar to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Bintulu

Bisaya, Brunei
[bsb] 20,000 in Malaysia. Limbang and Lawas districts. Alternate names: Bekiau, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Lorang Bukit, Visayak. Dialects: Sarawak Bisaya (Bisaya’), Tutong 1. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern

Bukitan
[bkn] 290 in Malaysia (2000). Kapit, 7th Division. Alternate names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

Iban
[iba] 658,000 in Malaysia (2004). Population total all countries: 694,400. Sadong River north to Bintulu, Sibu; Sabah, Tawau District, 1 village. Also in Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Sea Dayak. Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Skrang, Dau, Lemanak, Ulu Ai, Undup. Second Division dialect is norm for literature. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic

Kajaman
[kag] 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Central Sarawak, 7th Division, near Belaga on Baloi River. Alternate names: Kayaman, Kejaman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

Kayan, Baram
[kys] 4,150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Sarawak, Baram River area. Alternate names: Baram Kajan. Dialects: Long Atip, Long Akahsemuka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper

Kayan, Rejang
[ree] 3,030 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Rejang, Balui River areas. Alternate names: Rejang Kajan. Dialects: Ma’aging, Long Badan, Uma Daro, Long Kehobo (Uma Poh), Uma Juman, Long Murun, Long Geng, Lemena, Lisum. Limited comprehension of Baram Kayan [kys]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper

Kelabit
[kzi] 1,500 in Malaysia. Population total all countries: 2,140. Northern Sarawak, remotest and highest Borneo mountains. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Kalabit, Kerabit. Dialects: Pa’ Umor (spoken in Bario), Pa’ Dalih, Long Peluan, Long Lellang, Brung, Libbung, Lepu Potong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

Kenyah, Mainstream
[xkl] 20,000 in Malaysia (2008). South central, near Kalimantan border. Alternate names: Bakong, Bakung, Bakung Kenya, Bakung Kenyah. Dialects: Oga Bakung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah

Kiput
[kyi] 2,460 (Wurm and Hattori 1983). Northeast around Marudi. Dialects: Long Kiput, Long Tutoh (Kuala Tutoh). Related to Narom [nrm], Lelak llk], Tutong [ttg], Belait [beg], Berawan languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A

Lahanan
[lhn] 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Central, east of Belaga, southwest of Long Murum. Alternate names: Lanan, Lanun. Dialects: Most similar to Kajaman [kag]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

Lelak
[llk] Extinct. Long Teru and Sungai Bunen (at Loagan Bunut Lake) on Tinjar River. Dialects: Related to Narom [nrm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B

Long Wat
[ttw] 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northeast, Tutoh River. Alternate names: Tutoh Kenya, Tutoh Kenyah. Dialects: Long Wat, Long Labid, Lugat. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah

Lun Bawang
[lnd] 24,000 in Malaysia. Sarawak 21,000, Sabah 3,000–4,000. Population for Brunei estimated at 500. Southwest border of Sabah and Sarawak. Alternate names: Lun-Bawang, Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lun Lod, Lundaya, Southern Murut. Dialects: Lun Bawang (Sarawak Murut), Lun Dayah, Kolur, Padas, Trusan (Lawas, Limbang), Lepu Potong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

Malay
[msa] A macrolanguage. Population total all countries: 39,144,949.

Melanau, Central
[mel] 113,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Population total all countries: 113,280. 3rd Division, Rejang delta coastal area to Balingian River. Also in Brunei. Alternate names: Belana’u, Milanau, Milano. Dialects: Mukah-Oya (Mukah, Muka, Oya, Oya’, Oga), Balingian, Bruit, Dalat (Dalad), Igan, Sarikei, Segahan, Prehan, Segalang, Siteng. Balingian dialect is linguistically quite distinct from others. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

Melanau, Daro-Matu
[dro] 7,600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,800 Matu, 2,800 Daro. Matu River from north channel of Rejang River to the sea, Daro and Matu areas. Dialects: Daro, Matu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong
[kxn] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 500. 3rd Division, Middle Rejang River, below Tanjong. Dialects: Kanowit, Tanjong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

Melanau, Sibu
[sdx] 420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sibu, 3rd Division, Rejang River. Alternate names: Seduan-Banyok, Sibu, Siduan, Siduani. Dialects: Seduan, Banyok. May be intelligible with Central Melanau [mel]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

Murik
[mxr] 1,120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Below Long Miri (Banyuq) and below Lio Mato (Semiang) on Baram River. Dialects: Long Banyuq (Banyuq), Long Semiang (Semiang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Murik Kayan

Narom
[nrm] 2,420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). South of Baram River mouth, Miri area and south. Alternate names: Narum. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B

Okolod
[kqv] 1,580 in Malaysia (2000). 1,000 in Sarawak, 100 to 200 in Sabah. Sabah southwest of Tenom and Sipitang districts on plantation estates; Padas River headwater area. Primarily in Sarawak and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Alternate names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut

Penan, Bah-Biau
[pna] 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Central, 7th Division, Merit, Rejang River areas. Alternate names: Punan, Bah-Biau. Dialects: Punan Bah (Punan Ba), Punan Biau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau

Penan, Eastern
[pez] 6,400 in Malaysia (2007). Population total all countries: 6,455. Apoh River District, east of Baram River. Also in Brunei. Alternate names: “Punan”. Dialects: Penan Apoh. Related to Western Penan [pne], Uma Lasan [xky], but not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan

Penan, Western
[pne] 3,400 (2007). 4th to 7th divisions, upper Baram and Balui rivers, Mt. Dulit area, 3 villages; Nibong branch of Lobong River, a tributary of Tinjar River. Alternate names: Nibon, Nibong, “Punan”. Dialects: Nibong, Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Penan Apo, Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan

Punan Batu 1
[pnm] 30 (2000 S. Wurm). Central, west of Long Geng, southeast of Belaga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo. Nearly extinct.

Remun
[lkj] 3,500 (SIL). Serian District, Kuching Division,southeast of Serian to Balai Ringin. 13 villages. Alternate names: Milikin, Millikin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic

Sa’ban
[snv] 1,110 in Malaysia (2000). Population total all countries: 1,960. Northeast on Kalimantan border, 4th Division, south of Ramudu, Upper Baram, Long Banga’, Long Puak, Long Peluan. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Merau, used in Kalimantan. Dialects: Apparently there was a dialect chain in Bahau area (Kalimantan); now a Long Banga’ dialect is developing. In Kalimantan, those living in Tang La’an are influenced by Krayan (Kelabit) [kzi] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

Salako
[knx] 10,700 in Malaysia (2000 census), increasing. Sarawak census data for Lundu Bidayuhs; Salako are not linguistically Bidayuh, but are referred to as Bidayuh. 1st Division, Saak, Lundu. 22 villages. Alternate names: Selako, Salakau, Selakau, Silakau, Kendayan, Kenayatn. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Kendayan

Sebop
[sib] 1,730 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Sarawak, 4th Division, upper Tinjar River, between Rejang and Baram rivers. Alternate names: Sabup, Sebob, Cebop, Sibop. Dialects: Tinjar Sibop, Lirong, Long Pokun, Bah Malei (Ba Mali), Long Atun, Long Ekang (Long Ikang), Long Luyang. Cebop used on the Indonesian side of the border, Sebop in Sarawak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah

Sebuyau
[snb] 9,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lundu, 1st Division, Lupa River mouth, west bank around Sebuyau. Alternate names: Sabuyan, Sabuyau, Sibuian, Sibuyan, Sibuyau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic

Sekapan
[skp] 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Belaga, 7th Division. Alternate names: Sekepan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

Seru
[szd] Extinct. Kabong, 2nd Division. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau

Sian
[spg] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Belaga, 7th Division. Alternate names: Sihan. Dialects: May be intelligible with Bukitan [bkn], Ukit [umi], Punan Batu 1 [pnm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Nearly extinct.

Tring
[tgq] 550 (2000). Lower Tutoh River, Long Terawan village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic

Ukit
[umi] 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 7th Division, upper Rajom and Tatau rivers, Baleh. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang

Uma’ Lasan
[xky] 1,250 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Population total all countries: 2,750. Balui, Belaga, Kalua, Kemena rivers. Also in Indonesia (Kalimantan). Alternate names: Kanyay, Kenja, Kindjin, Kinjin, Western Kenya, Western Kenyah. Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan

:: Reference ::

Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/

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