Taiwan

Extensive List of Languages of Taiwan: Spoken and Extinct Languages

:: List of Languages ::

Amis
[ami] 138,000 (2002 Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan, ROC). Ethnic population: 137,651. Between Hualien and Taitung, valley plains and east coast by the sea. Alternate names: Ami, Amia, Bakurut, Lam-Si-Hoan, Maran, Pagcah, Pangcah, Pangtsah, Sabari, Tanah. Dialects: Central Amis (Haian Ami, Hsiukulan Ami), Tavalong-Vataan (Kwangfu, Kuangfu), Southern Amis (Peinan, Hengch’un Amis, Taitung), Chengkung-Kwangshan, Northern Amis (Nanshi Amis). The Chengkung-Kwangshan dialect is most similar to Central Amis dialect. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central

Amis, Nataoran
[ais] 5 (2000 S. Wurm). Hualien area and north of Fenglin. Alternate names: Nataoran, Natawran, Tauran. Dialects: Nataoran, Sakizaya (Sakiray, Sakiraya), Kaliyawan (Kaliyuawan), Natawran, Cikosowan, Pokpok, Ridaw. Not generally understood by other Amis. The Sakizaya dialect is even more divergent from Central Amis [ami]. In recent years dialects converged. Lexical similarity: 50% with Central Amis. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central Nearly extinct.

Atayal
[tay] 84,300 (2002 Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan, ROC). Ethnic population: 78,957 (1989 govt. figure), including 50 Mayrinax speakers left (2000 L. Huang). Northeast mountains, south of Ketagalan [kae]. Alternate names: Ataiyal, Attayal, Bonotsek, Shabogala, Taijyal, Taiyal, Takonan, Tangao, Tayal, Tyal, Yukan. Dialects: Sqoleq (Squliq), Ts’ole’ (Ci’uli’). Mayrinax is a Ci’uli’ subdialect. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic

Babuza
[bzg] 4 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 35. West central coast and inland, Tatu and Choshui rivers and beyond. Alternate names: Babusa, Favorlang, Favorlangsch, Jaborlang, Poavosa. Dialects: Poavosa, Taokas. Taokas dialect has no remaining speakers. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains Nearly extinct.

Basay
[byq] Extinct. North, Tam Shui to Kungliao area, Fengtzulin, Taipei, Sangchung, and northeast Suao and east of Ilan area. Alternate names: Basai, Kawanuwan. Dialects: Trobiawan, Linaw-Qauqaul. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern

Bunun
[bnn] 38,000 (2002 Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan, ROC). Ethnic population: 37,989. East central plain, south of the Sediq (Taroko) [trv]. Alternate names: Bubukun, Bunan, Bunti, Bunum, Vonun, Vunum, Vunun, Vunung. Dialects: Randai, Tondai, Shibukun (Sibukun, Sibukaun, Sibucoon, Sivukun), North Bunun (Takitudu, Taketodo, Takebakha, Takibakha), Central Bunun (Takbanuao, Takivatan, Takevatan), South Bunun (Ishbukun), Takopulan. Classification: Austronesian, Bunun

Chinese, Hakka
[hak] 2,370,000 in Taiwan (1993). Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Pingtung counties. Shi Xien in north and south; Hi-Lu in central, north central. Dialects: Hailu (Hoiluk, Hoilluk, Hi-Lu), Sanhsien (Shigen, Shixien, Shi Xien). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 4,320,000 in Taiwan (1993). Mainly Taipei and 5 provincial cities. Alternate names: Guoyu, Kuoyu, Mandarin, Putonghua. Dialects: Taibei Mandarin. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 15,000,000 in Taiwan (1997 A. Chang). Tainan, Penghu Archipelago, cities on east coast, western plain. Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Amoy (Taiwanese). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

Japanese
[jpn] Classification: Japonic

Kanakanabu
[xnb] 8 (2005 SIL). Ethnic population: 250 (UNESCO). Central, Sanmin Township, Kaohsiung County, Minchuan village area. Alternate names: Kanabu, Kanakanavu. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic Nearly extinct.

Kavalan
[ckv] 24 (2000 P. Li). Ethnic population: 200. Northeast coast, above Toucheng to Ilan, nearly to Suao, and inland to Tayal language area. No longer spoken in the original area; a few migrants to the east coast, Hsishe village, Fengpin Township, Hualien County (1990). Alternate names: Cabaran, Kabalan, Kabaran, Kamalan, Kavanan, Kavarauan, Kbalan, Kibalan, Kiwaraw, Kiwarawa, Kuvalan, Kuvarawan, Kuwarawan, Kvalan, Shekwan. Dialects: Kareovan (Kareowan). Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern Nearly extinct.

Ketangalan
[kae] Extinct. North central, Panchiao area and northwest, west, and southeast. Alternate names: Ketagalan, Tangalan. Classification: Austronesian, Unclassified

Kulon-Pazeh
[uun] 1 (2000 P. Li). West coast area, east of Tayal, Cholan area, Houli, Fengyuan, Tantzu, Taichung, Tungshih. Alternate names: Kulun. Classification: Austronesian, Northwest Formosan Nearly extinct.

Paiwan
[pwn] 66,100 (Council of Indigenous Peoples 2002). Ethnic population: 66,084. South, mountains southeast. Alternate names: Butanglu, Kadas, Kale-Whan, Kapiangan, Katausan, Li-Li-Sha, Paiuan, Payowan, Samobi, Samohai, Saprek, Stimul, Tamari. Classification: Austronesian, Paiwan

Papora-Hoanya
[ppu] Extinct. North central coast around Lishui, Chingshui, Shalu, and inland to Taichung. Alternate names: Bupuran, Hinapavosa, Papola, Vupuran. Dialects: Papora, Hoanya. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains

Puyuma
[pyu] 8,490 (Council of Indigenous Peoples 2002). Ethnic population: 8,487. Along the east coast south of Taitung and inland. Alternate names: Kadas, Panapanayan, Pelam, Pilam, Piyuma, Pyuma, Tipun. Dialects: Nanwang, Pinan. Classification: Austronesian, Puyuma

Rukai
[dru] 10,500 (Council of Indigenous Peoples 2002). Ethnic population: 10,543. South central mountains, Ping Tung area, 11 villages; Taitung area, 2 or 3 villages; west of the Puyuma [pyu]. Alternate names: Banga, Bantalang, Bantaurang, Drukai, Drukay, Dukai, Dyokay, Kadas, Rutkai, Sarisen, Taloma, Tsalisen, Tsarisen. Dialects: Budai, Labuan, Tanan, Maga, Tona, Mantauran. Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent. Classification: Austronesian, Rukai

Saaroa
[sxr] 6 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 300 (2000 UNESCO Red Book). West central mountains, south and southeast of Minchuan, along Laonung River. Alternate names: La’alua, La’arua, Pachien, Paichien, Rarua, Saarua, Saroa, Shishaban, Sisyaban. Dialects: Similar to Kanakanabu [xnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic Nearly extinct.

Saisiyat
[xsy] 4,750 (Council of Indigenous Peoples 2002). Ethnic population: 7,900. Western mountains, west of the Atayal [tay], Nanchuang Township, Miaoli County and Wufong Township, Hsinchu County. Alternate names: Amutoura, Bouiok, Saiset, Saisett, Saisiat, Saisiett, Saisirat, Saisyet, Saisyett, Seisirat. Dialects: Taai (North Saiset), Tungho (South Saiset). Dialect differences are mainly phonological and lexical (1978 P. Li). Classification: Austronesian, Northwest Formosan

Siraya
[fos] Extinct. Southwest, Tainan area, Peimen to Hengchun to Tapu. Alternate names: Baksa, Formosan, “Pepo-Hwan” , “Pepohoan” , Sideia, Sideis, Sideisch, Siraia, Siraiya. Dialects: Siraya, Makatao (Makattao, Takaraya, Tta’o), Pangsoia-Dolatok, Taivoan (Tevorang), Lamai. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Southwest

Taiwan Sign Language
[tss] Alternate names: Taiwan Ziran Shouyu. Dialects: Taipei, Tainan, Kaohsiung. 2 major dialects. Sources from which the sign language developed were indigenous sign systems before 1895, Japanese occupation and education 1895–1946, Mainland Chinese Sign Language brought by refugees in 1949 and some from Hong Kong since. Lexical similarity: 50% with Japanese Sign Language [jsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language

Taroko
[trv] 20,000 (2008 R. Covell). Central, east, and coast; mountains north, Puli area; coast south of Hualien, south of the Atayal [tay]. Alternate names: Bu-Hwan, Che-Hwan, Daiya-Ataiyal, Hogo, Iboho, Paran, Saediq, Sazek, Sedek, Sedeq, Sediakk, Sedik, Seedek, Seedeq, Seedik, Sejiq, Shedekka, Taruku, Toda, Toroko, Truku. Dialects: Teruku (Truku), Te’uda (Tuuda), Tekedaya (Tkdaya, Paran). Dialects differ mainly in phonology and lexicon, some in grammar. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic

Thao
[ssf] 6 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 248 (1989). Central, Sun Moon Lake southeast shore, Te-hua village, and Ta-p’ing-lin 14 kms. away. Alternate names: Chui-Huan, Chuihwan, Sao, Sau, Shao, Suihwan, Vulung. Dialects: Brawbaw, Shtafari. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Thao Nearly extinct.

Tsou
[tsu] 2,130 (Council of Indigenous Peoples 2002). Ethnic population: 2,127. West central mountains southeast of Chiayi, Alishan (Mt. Ali) area. Alternate names: Namakaban, Niitaka, Tibola, Tibolah, Tibolak, Tibolal, Tso, Tsoo, Tsu-U, Tsu-Wo, Tsuou, Tzo. Dialects: Duhtu, Luhtu, Tapangu, Tfuea, Iimutsu. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic

Yami
[tao] 3,380 (Council of Indigenous Peoples 2002). Ethnic population: 3,384. Orchid Island, Botel Tobago (Lanyu) Island, southeast coast. Alternate names: Botel Tabago, Botel Tobago, Lanyu, Tao, Tawu. Dialects: Similar to northern Philippines Ivatan [ivv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Yami

:: Reference ::
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/

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