Iraq

Extensive List of Languages of Iraq: Spoken and Extinct Languages

:: List of Languages ::

Adyghe
[ady] 19,000 in Iraq (1993). Alternate names: Adygey, West Circassian. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian

Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] 40,000 in Iraq. Population total all countries: 3,599,000. Zubair area, Fau Peninsula. Also in Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. Alternate names: Gulf Arabic, Khaliji. Dialects: Zubair-Faau Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi
[yhd] 120 in Iraq (1992 H. Mutzafi). Most in Israel. Alternate names: Arabi, Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] 11,500,000 in Iraq. Population total all countries: 15,100,000. Tigris and Euphrates area. Also in Iran, Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia). Alternate names: Arabic, Baghdadi, Furati, Iraqi Arabic, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic. Dialects: Anatolian Cluster, Tigris Cluster, Euphrates Cluster. Geographical and sectarian divisions correlate with Iraqi dialects. The vernacular standard based on Baghdad speech. Also Bedouin dialects. Nearly unintelligible to speakers of certain other vernacular Arabic varieties. Anatolian Cluster in Turkey. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Arabic, Najdi Spoken
[ars] 900,000 in Iraq. Central Najdi in western desert, used by Bedouin; North Najdi is south between the rivers up to the Syrian border by Bedouin. Dialects: North Najdi (Shammar), Central Najdi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] 5,400,000 in Iraq (1992). Population total all countries: 6,300,000. Tigris, part of the Euphrates valleys north of Baghdad. Also in Jordan, Syria, Turkey (Asia). Alternate names: Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-
Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic. Dialects: Very similar to Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], but with important sociolinguistic differences. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Arabic, Standard
[arb] Middle East, North Africa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Armenian
[hye] 60,000 in Iraq. Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] 30,000 in Iraq (1994). Population total all countries: 219,330. Ethnic population: 4,250,000 (1994). Northern Iraq, Baghdad, Basrah, Karkuk, Arbil. Also in Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Lebanon, Netherlands, New Zealand, Russian Federation (Europe), Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey (Asia), United Kingdom, United States. Alternate names: Aisorski, Assyrian, Assyrianci, Assyriski, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Sooreth, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya. Dialects: Urmi Assyrian (Urmi, Sipurghan, Solduz), Northern Assyrian (Salamas, Van, Jilu, Gavar, Qudshanis, Upper Barwari, Dez, Baz), Central Assyrian (Mar Bishu, Nochiya, Shamezdin, Tergawar, Anhar), Western Assyrian (Tkhuma, Lower Barwari, Tal, Lewin), Sapna (Aradhin, Tina, Daudiya, Inishke, Benatha). Similar linguistically to other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Inherent intelligibility is difficult to estimate due to intense exposure throughout the Assyrian diaspora to many dialects, especially Urmi and Iraqi Koine. As a result, intelligibility between dialects is as high as 80%–90%. Urmian group subdialects: Urmi, Sipurghan, Solduz; Northern Group: Salamas, Van, Jilu, Gavar, Qudshanis, Upper Barwari, Dez, Baz; Central Group: Mar Bishu, Nochiya (Shamezdin), Tergawar, Anhar; Western Group: Tkhuma, Lower Barwari, Tal, Lewin; SapnaGroup: Aradhin, Tina, Daudiya, Inishke, Benatha. Standard literary Assyrian is based on Urmi. Many left original areas and developed a common spoken and written form based on the prestigious Urmi dialect as spoken in Baghdad, Chicago (USA), and elsewhere (Iraqi Koine). Most Christians understand it. This Urmi subdialect is different from Lishán Didán Urmi subdialect. All dialects of Western, Northern, and Central Assyrian are spoken in Syria. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern

Azerbaijani, South
[azb] 600,000 in Iraq (1982). Kirkuk City, Arbil, Rowanduz, other areas southeast from Kirkuk as far as Al Miqdadiyah, Khanaqin, and Mandali; some in Mosul region. Dialects: Kirkuk. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani

Bajelani
[bjm] 20,000 (1976 S. Sara). Qasr-e Shirin, Zohâb, Bin Qudra, Quratu, north of Khanaqin, also in Mosul Province. Kurdish areas. Alternate names: Bajalani, Bajoran, Bejwan, Chichamachu, Gurani. Dialects: In the Gurani and Zaza group. Closely related to Gurani, Shabak, Sarli (less closely to Zaza dialects). Contact with Kurdish. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani

Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
[cld] 110,000 in Iraq (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 216,000. Mosul, Baghdad, Basrah, southeast Iraqi Kurdistan. Also in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Lebanon, Netherlands, Sweden, Syria, Turkey (Asia), United States. Alternate names: Chaldean, Fallani, Fellihi, Kaldaya, Kildani, Lishana Kaldaya, Modern Chaldean, Neo-Chaldean, Soorath, Soorith, Suras, Sureth. Dialects: Mangesh, Alqosh, Tel Kepe, Tisqopa, Bartille, Shirnak-Chizre (Bohtan), Dihok. High intelligibility of Lishana Deni [lsd] and Ashirat [aii] (western dialect group of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic); little or no intelligibility with other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern

Domari
[rmt] 22,900 in Iraq (2000). Alternate names: Middle Eastern Romani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom

Farsi, Western
[pes] 227,000 in Iraq (1993). Alternate names: Persian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian

Gurani
[hac] 21,100 in Iraq (2000). Several hundred thousand for Gurani speakers in both Iraq and Iran (Blau 1989). Population total all countries: 44,000. Near Halabja, east of Suleimaniye, Topzawa near Tawuq, pockets from Mosul to Khanaqin. Also in Iran. Alternate names: Gorani, Hawramani, Hawrami, Hewrami, Macho. Dialects: The Zaza-Gurani group includes Dimli [diq] (Zaza) (Turkey), and Gurani [hac], Bajelani [bjm] (Bajalani), Shabak [sdb], and Sarli [sdf] (Iraq); Hawrami [hac] (Iran). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani

Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
[tmr] Extinct. Alternate names: Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern

Koy Sanjaq Surat
[kqd] 900 (1995 H. Mutzafi). Northern Iraq, Koi-Sanjaq, Armota. Alternate names: Koi Sanjaq Soorit, Koi-Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq
Soorit. Dialects: Related in certain morphological and lexical respects to Senaya [syn]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern

Kurdish
[kur] A macrolanguage. Population total all countries: 16,025,505.

Kurdish, Central
[ckb] 462,000 in Iraq (2004). Population total all countries: 3,712,000. South of Great Zab River, Suleimaniye, Arbil, Kirkuk, and Khanaqin and Mandali provinces. Also displaced. Diaspora communities in other areas, including western Europe, USA. Also in Iran. Alternate names: Kurdi, Sorani. Dialects: Hewleri (Arbili), Xoshnaw, Pizhdar, Suleimani (Silemani), Warmawa, Rewandiz, Bingird, Mukri, Kerkuki, Garmiyani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish

Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] 2,800,000 in Iraq (2004). North of Great Zab River, Dohuk and Mosul provinces. Surchi near Great Zab River. Alternate names: Badinani, Bahdini, Behdini, Kirmanciya Jori, Kurmanji. Dialects: Surchi, Akre, Amadiye, Barwari Jor, Gulli, Zakho, Sheikhan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish

Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] South of Xanaqin, Kirind, and Qorwaq. Dialects: Kolyai, Kermanshahi (Kermanshani), Kalhori, Sanjabi, Maleksh ahi (Maleksh ay), Bayray, Kordali, Feyli, Luri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish

Mandaic
[mid] 5,000 in Iraq (2006). Population total all countries: 5,500. Ethnic population: 30,000. Baghdad, Basra. Also in Australia, Iran, United States. Alternate names: Mandaean, Mandi, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabe’in, Sabean, Subbi. Dialects: Iraqi Neo-Mandaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic

Sarli
[sdf] Fewer than 20,000. Kirkuk Province, north of Mosul; many displaced. Alternate names: Sarliya. Dialects: In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Closely related to Gurani, Hawrami [hac], Shabak [sdb], Bajelani [bjm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani

Shabak
[sdb] 15,000 (Blau 1989). North of Mosul, Ali Rach, Yangija, Khazna, Talara villages; many displaced since 1980’s. Dialects: In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Closely related to Gurani, Sarli [sdf], Bajelani [bjm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani

Syriac
[syr] A macrolanguage. Population total all countries: 416,731

:: Reference ::
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/

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