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Argentina

Argentina Guide. Argentina Country Profile.

Country Profile: Argentina.

Fact: Argentina is one of the countries with the highest Human Development Index level and a modern diversified industry base.

Argentina occupies most of the southern tail of the South American continent, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay. Argentina is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay on the north, and by Brazil on the east. It is the second largest country in South America by land area, and eighth in the world.

Most of Argentina’s population is of European origin, usually being of Spanish, Italian, British, French, and German. Also, the high economic growth potential, investment incentives, competitive access to international markets, the development of infrastructure of Argentina convinced important investors to open a business in Argentina.

:: Background of Argentina ::

In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country’s population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina’s history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the resignation of several interim presidents. The economy has recovered strongly since bottoming out in 2002.

:: Geography of Argentina ::

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay.

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Area:
total: 2,766,890 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 30,200 sq km

Area – comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US.
Land boundaries: total: 9,861 km.
Border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 580 km.

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest.
Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border.

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz) highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza)

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium.

Land use:
arable land: 10.03%
permanent crops: 0.36%
other: 89.61% (2005)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding.

Environment – current issues:environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets.

Environment – international agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling. Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation.

:: People of Argentina ::

Population: 40.482 million (July 2008 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.8% (male 5,341,642/female 5,095,325)
15-64 years: 63.5% (male 12,807,458/female 12,884,745)
65 years and over: 10.8% (male 1,784,652/female 2,568,176) (2008 est.)

Median age:
total: 29.7 years
male: 28.8 years
female: 30.8 years (2008 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.068% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 18.11 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 7.43 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 11.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.36 years
male: 73.11 years
female: 79.77 years (2008 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prévalence rate: 0.7% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: 1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationality: noun: Argentine(s) adjective: Argentine.

Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish, Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%.

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%.

Languages: Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French.

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.2%
male: 97.2%
female: 97.2% (2001 census)